Today I released a new preprint on bioRxiv, Group-level patterns emerge from individual speed as revealed by an extremely social robotic fish, which is the result of a great collaboration with David Bierbach and colleagues at the Humboldt Universität zu Berlin.
In this paper we present results of an experiment to investigate how the speed of individual group members leads to group-level patterns. We paired guppies with a biomimetic robot that was programmed to always follow and lack any individual preferences of its own. We used a state-of-the art closed-loop tracking and feedback system to be able to properly control for the influence of individual heterogeneity of the individual’s group members.
We show that individual differences in guppies’ movement speed were highly repeatable and shaped key collective patterns: higher individual speeds resulted in stronger leadership, lower cohesion, higher alignment, and better temporal coordination in the pairs. By combining the strengths of individual-based models and observational work with state-of-the-art robotics, we provide novel evidence that individual speed is a key, fundamental process in the emergence of collective behaviour.